Waste management: stages of the technological cycle

In the previous issue of the section “Humanity. Society. Nature ”, we began to get acquainted with the waste management system as the main principle of the environmental legislation of the Republic. In this issue of the rubric, we will examine in more detail the first two stages of the production and consumption waste cycle at the enterprise.

Stage 1 - the appearance of waste.

As a result of the activities of any enterprise, the formation of various types of waste is possible, the amount and composition of which will depend on the specifics of the enterprise.

In accordance with the Environmental Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, production waste - the remains of raw materials, materials, other products and products formed in the production process and lost all or part of their original consumer properties; and consumption waste - the remains of products, products and other substances formed in the process of their consumption or operation, as well as goods (products) that have lost all or part of their original consumer properties.

In order to ensure environmental protection and human health in the Republic of Kazakhstan, to reduce the amount of waste generated as a result of production activities and disposed of at enterprises' own landfills, standards for waste generation and limits for their disposal are established, measures are being developed to reduce the anthropogenic impact of waste, and environmental monitoring.

For the development of activities and monitoring, the following tasks:

– technological processes are identified, as a result of which waste generation is possible;

– hazard classes of waste are established and places for their temporary and / or permanent storage are organized;

– analysis of possible ways of recycling and / or storage of production and consumption waste.

Stage 2 - collection and (or) accumulation of waste.

 

As a result of the activities of enterprises, the following types of waste are generated:

– mercury-containing lamps. Hazard class I;

– lead batteries are used undamaged, with no electrolyte drained. Hazard class II;

– used oils are transmission, motor, industrial, compressor, transformer, halogen-free, polychlorinated biphenyls and terphenyls, turbine. Hazard class III;

– sludge for cleaning tanks from oil and petroleum products (oil sludge from cleaning gas station tanks and fuel oil tanks). Hazard class III;

– scrap and waste of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Hazard class III;

– cleaning material contaminated with oils. Hazard class IV;

– used tires. Hazard class IV;

– rubber products are unpolluted and have lost their consumer properties. Hazard class V;

– food waste and industrial waste similar to municipal waste (waste (garbage) from cleaning the territory and storage facilities). Hazard class V;

– non-polluted glass fight (excluding glass fight of cathode ray tubes and fluorescent lamps) and residues/stubs of steel welding electrodes. Hazard class V;

– waste paper and cardboard from clerical activities and office work. Hazard class V.