Basic “pollutants” of the environment: oxides and solid particles. Part 3

In the section of "Human, Society & Nature” we begin to get acquainted with the following group of the main air pollutants - oxides of nitrogen, sulfur, carbon and solid particles.

The atmosphere is what surrounds the planet and forms a kind of dome that preserves the air and a certain millennia-old environment. It's that which allows humanity and all living things to breathe and exist. The atmosphere consists of several layers, and different components enter in its structure. Most nitrogen is contained (slightly less than 78%), followed by oxygen (about 20%). The amount of argon does not exceed 1%, and the proportion of carbon dioxide CO2 is completely negligible - less than 0.2-0.3%. And such a structure must be maintained and remain constant. If the ratio of elements changes, then the protective shell of the Earth does not fulfill its basic functions.

Harmful emissions, such as oxides of nitrogen, sulfur, carbon, solid particles, enter the environment daily and almost constantly, which is associated with the rapid pace of development of civilization, everyone wants to buy a car and everyone heats their homes.

There are several classifications of emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. So, they are divided into: organized and non-organized.

In the latter case, harmful substances enter the air from the so-called non-organized and unregulated sources, which include waste storage facilities and warehouses of potentially hazardous raw materials, places of unloading and loading of trucks and freight trains, flyovers.

The organized category consists of stationary sources of emissions. And they are divided by design features into:

  • low (this includes emitting gases and harmful compounds together with ventilation air at a low level, often near buildings from which substances are removed);
  • high (this includes pipes through which exhausts almost immediately penetrate into the atmospheric layers);

 medium or intermediate (this includes intermediate contaminants that are no more than 15-20% higher than the so-called aerodynamic shadow zone created by structures.

The classification can be based on particle size, which determines the penetration of components and the dispersion of emissions in the atmosphere. This indicator is used to assess pollutants in the form of aerosols or dust. For the latter, dispersion is divided into five groups, and for aerosol fluids - into four categories. And the finer the components, the more rapidly they disperse through the air basin.